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Cahle medievale descoperite la castelul Lăzarea / Middle Age stove tiles discovered at Lãzarea castle

Limba de redactare română
Excerpt Middle age stove tiles bring important historical information by their composition. Lãzarea Castle, Harghita county, is known as the formal residence of an influential aristocratic Szekler family - Lázár family. During several centuries, the members of this family that were aristocrats with administrative and military responsibilities, have been participating in the major political events that took place in Transylvania. Between the 15th-17th centuries, the castle was rebuilt several times, its architecture being influenced by the artistic style of several epochs. The stove tiles found at Lãzarea Castle bring evidence on the evolution and enrichment of the aesthetic taste and demands of the castle's owners, regarding the interior design. The archaeological excavations performed between 1963-1968, 1970-1971, 1973-1974, 1975-1976 led to the discovery of stove tiles dating from the 15th-17th centuries, corresponding to the building and rebuilding stages of the castle. These terracotta show how the owners' aesthetic taste has evolved, and how their demands on the interior design have increased. The first building period of the castle started in the middle of the 15th century and ended around the year 1532. Archaeological material regarding the heating installations dating from that period of time consists of brick fragments, pot tiles manufactured on the potter's wheel and panel tiles modeled in wooden moulds, decorated with geometrical patterns, with vegetal patterns or inspired by Gothicism. The panel tiles are not glazed but painted in white; there were also found fragments painted in both white and British red. Another group of terracotta was used as decoration for the stoves built inside the rooms nearby the surrounding walls of the castle, before 1532. There are several types of stove tiles with different shapes: panel tiles and pot tiles with rectangular hole and trunk conic body. The rectangular panel tiles were modeled in wooden moulds and were not glazed. Their decoration has importance due to the originality of the following scenes: The knight in tournament and the princess; The knight in tournament, to the right, having a Middle Age castle as background; The knight in tournament, to the left, having a Middle Age castle as background; Saint George killing the dragon; geometrical patterns. These stove tiles were manufactured at a local workshop, not very well specialised. Even though the stove tiles are not technically or aesthetically remarkable, one can point out the creativity of the potter who made the tile's moulds and especially the documentary value of some details. In The knight in tournament and the princess' scene, the heraldic symbol of the aristocratic Szekler family - Lázár - is represented for the first time in the upper-right corner of the tile as a heraldic blazon. The rebuilding or restoration stages of some castle areas involved the modification, the restoration or even building of new heating installations. The terracotta that were used to decorate these stoves, have different style characteristics. In addition, one can notice that the manufacturer's techniques have been improved. A fragment from a panel tile that was modeled in a mould and not glazed is dating from the end of the 16th century - beginning of the 17th century. It is decorated with a central cone and a tulip flower in each corner of the tile. Several fragments of panel tiles, green glazed and decorated with geometrical and vegetal symmetrical patterns, were dated in the middle of the 17th century. By artistic value, one can notice the terracotta fragments that are treated with mica flour, having vegetal decoration, with elegant and harmonious composition that seem to be inspired by rich silk or velvet tapestry. The stove tiles are dated towards the end of the 17th century. The new owners of the castle were constantly increasing their demands regarding the exterior castle architecture and the interior design, by enriching and adapting their aesthetic taste to the style and trend of that epoch.
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Titlul volumului de apariție
  • Muzeul Naţional; XVII; anul 2005