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Un experiment interbelic - gubernul de tehnicieni - / The technocratic government: A political experiment between the Two World Wars

Limba de redactare română
Excerpt The dramatic economic crisis between 1929 and 1933 did not fail to seriously affect Romania’s economic, social, and political life. Political unrest was largely caused by an ineffective Regency Council, as well as the dynastic crisis which split attitudes as to the intention of Prince Carol, heir to the throne, to return as king of the country. The Restoration of June 8, 1930 made things worse as certain top politicians supported the idea of Carol’s being anointed king, since his dictatorial tendencies definitely contradicted the position of the political parties in defence of a parliamentary monarchic regime. In order to implement his own dictatorship, Carol II strove to secure the political support of his camarilla, of the oligarchy and of his former “Carlist” partisans, both civilian and military, to whom he added chance right-wing supporters who renounced membership in their respective parties. He tried to replace the parliamentary administration of political parties with a National Union Cabinet based on a reduced parliament on whom the king should hold ultimate authority. On 12 June 1930, upon resignation of the Gh. Gh. Mironescu Cabinet, Carol launched the idea of a government in concert, in order to test the reaction of the political parties and that of the general public. His proposal met with strong opposition from the political parties, which resulted in another National Peasants’ Party Cabinet led by Iuliu Maniu. Sharp antagonism ensued between the king, who wished for personal control of the government, and Iuliu Maniu, who insisted on applying his own constitutional prerogatives. Such tension added up to the financial crisis and social dissatisfaction, to the effect that the government was soon replaced with another, patronised by the same party and led by Gh. Gh. Mironescu. On 4 April 1931 the government failed again as Minister Mihail Manoilescu, imposed by the king, resigned his office. A choice was to be made for the future President of the Ministers’ Council between Marshal Constantin Prezan and diplomat Nicolae Titulescu. The latter was also appointed to form the next government, owing to his indisputable qualities as a politician and diplomat. Nicolae Titulescu declined the mandate as he was perfectly aware that he would lack sound political support in the absence of the National Peasants’ Party from Parliament, which would set him against all other parties. Also, with Constantin Argetoianu at the head of the government, as required by the king, Titulescu’s authority would have been hopelessly feeble. The task of appointing a new cabinet of “technocrats” was transferred to Nicolae Iorga, who had declared himself favourable to the idea. It proved to be no easy task, since party leaders refused to support the Prime Minister. Constantin Argetoianu was entrusted with implementing the king’s instructions within the government, while Nicolae Iorga had to settle for the emblem of the Cabinet, in view of the enormous prestige built around his vast scientific activity and his authority in public life. As the government lacked support of one political party, a cartel was concluded with the National Liberal Party in order to resist hostile political forces and thus ensure success in the elections. A stormy campaign followed, complete with demagogic programmes from both the government and the opposing forces, encroachment and pressure exerted by the alliance of the “technocrats” and the liberals against the opposition. The outcome of the parliamentary election led to aggravation of the political crisis through the bitter contest between the government and the political parties in their efforts to obtain the better part of the votes. Many a citizen, disappointed by vague and unfulfilled promises and by the way the campaign had been negotiated, either failed to contribute their vote, or else dispersed their votes to various political organisations. As a result of a deepening political and economic crisis, the technocratic government only lasted until 5 June 1932, when the king asked Nicolae Titulescu again to devise a new cabinet. The liberals’ refusal to stand in favour of the project and the ambiguous positions of the other parties made Titulescu decline the mandate once more. The failure to form a coalition government forced the option for the one- sided political alternative. Accordingly, on 6 May 1932, the National Peasants’ Party appointed Alexandru Vaida-Voievod to devise a provisional “electoral government” until the situation was settled.
Paginaţia 303-322
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Titlul volumului de apariție
  • Muzeul Naţional; XVII; anul 2005